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Cardoso, Ana Rute
Hamermesh, Daniel S.
Varejão, José
Year of Publication: 
Series/Report no.: 
IZA discussion papers 3885
We examine the timing of firms' operations in a formal model of labor demand. Merging a variety of data sets from Portugal from 1995-2004, we describe temporal patterns of firms' demand for labor and estimate production-functions and relative labor-demand equations. The results demonstrate the existence of substitution of employment across times of the day/week and show that legislated penalties for work at irregular hours induce firms to alter their operating schedules. The results suggest a role for such penalties in an unregulated labor market, such as the United States, in which unusually large fractions of work are performed at night and on weekends.
Labor demand
time use
wage penalty
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Document Type: 
Working Paper

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