In the public discourse, education is usually considered as the main vehicle for the promotion of social equality and social mobility. The paper surveys the existing literature and concludes that the relationship between education and inequality in Greece is strong. Inequities are evident at all levels of the education system; especially as regards access to the most rewarding level, that is, university education. Many facets of the inequities observed in the labour market are associated with education, while education appears to be the single most important factor that shapes the overall distribution of income and influences the probability of poverty. Nevertheless, so far, several links between education and inequality have not been examined in detail.