Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/278663
Year of Publication: 
2023
Series/Report no.: 
ECB Working Paper No. 2831
Publisher: 
European Central Bank (ECB), Frankfurt a. M.
Abstract: 
We examine the link between labour market developments and new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and software in 16 European countries over the period 2011-2019. Using data for occupations at the 3-digit level in Europe, we find that on average employment shares have increased in occupations more exposed to AI. This is particularly the case for occupations with a relatively higher proportion of younger and skilled workers. This evidence is in line with the Skill Biased Technological Change theory. While there exists heterogeneity across countries, only very few countries show a decline in employment shares of occupations more exposed to AI-enabled automation. Country heterogeneity for this result seems to be linked to the pace of technology diffusion and education, but also to the level of product market regulation (competition) and employment protection laws. In contrast to the findings for employment, we find little evidence for a relationship between wages and potential exposures to new technologies.
Subjects: 
artificial intelligence
employment
skills
occupations
JEL: 
J23
O33
Persistent Identifier of the first edition: 
ISBN: 
978-92-899-6116-5
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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