We use the Theil index and data from the 2012-2016, American Community Survey 5-Year Sample to document and analyze gender wage inequality for American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women across single, multiracial and ethnic identity groups. Mean differences in hourly wages by gender contribute little to measured wage inequality when individuals are separated based upon their proximity to tribal homeland areas. Instead, we find between-group wage inequality is a function of glass-ceiling effects that differ by AIAN identification and homeland area. Differences in glass-ceiling effects across AIAN identity groups suggest the need to disaggregate data by AIAN ethnic identity. Furthermore, under certain circumstances, it may be appropriate to combine some racial AIAN identity groups into a single population even if the focus is to study policy impacts on citizens of federally recognized AIAN nations for those using government survey data.
American Indians Alaska Natives stratification wage inequality gender gap racial inequality Theil index homeland racial classification inequality decomposition