Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/242971
Authors: 
Howard, Philip H.
Ajena, Francesco
Yamaoka, Marina
Clarke, Amber
Year of Publication: 
2021
Citation: 
[Journal:] Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems [ISSN:] 2571-581X [Volume:] 5 [Issue:] (Article No.:) 674181
Abstract: 
Recent years have seen the convergence of industries that focus on higher protein foods, such as meat processing firms expanding into plant-based substitutes and/or cellular meat production, and fisheries firms expanding into aquaculture. A driving force behind these changes is dominant firms seeking to increase their power relative to close competitors, including by extending beyond boundaries that pose constraints to growth. The broad banner of “protein” offers a promising space to achieve this goal, despite its nutritionally reductionist focus on a single macronutrient. Protein firm strategies to increase their dominance are likely to further diminish equity in food systems by exacerbating power asymmetries. In addition, the resilience of food systems has the potential to be weakened as these strategies tend to reduce organizational diversity, as well as the genetic diversity of livestock and crops. To better understand these changes, we visually characterize firms that are most dominant in higher protein food industries globally and their recent strategic moves. We discuss the likelihood for these trends to further jeopardize food system resilience and equity, and we make recommendations for avoiding these impacts.
Subjects: 
consolidation
differential accumulation
distribution
diversity
ecology
equity
food
power
political ecology
protein
resilience
JEL: 
P16
L66
Q57
D4
D3
L1
L2
Persistent Identifier of the first edition: 
Creative Commons License: 
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Document Type: 
Article
Document Version: 
Published Version

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