Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/233809
Authors: 
Brixiová Schwidrowski, Zuzana
Imai, Susumu
Kangoye, Thierry
Yameogo, Nadege Desiree
Year of Publication: 
2021
Series/Report no.: 
GLO Discussion Paper No. 834
Publisher: 
Global Labor Organization (GLO), Essen
Abstract: 
Persistent gender gaps characterize labor markets in many African countries. Utilizing Eswatini's first three labor market surveys (conducted in 2007, 2010, and 2013), this paper provides first systematic evidence on the country's gender gaps in employment and earnings. We find that women have notably lower employment rates and earnings than men, even though the global financial crisis had a less negative impact on women than it had on men. Both unadjusted and unexplained gender earnings gaps are higher in self-employment than in wage employment. Tertiary education and urban location account for a large part of the gender earnings gap and mitigate high female propensity to self-employment. Our findings suggest that policies supporting female higher education and rural-urban mobility could reduce persistent inequalities in Eswatini's labor market outcomes as well as in other middle-income countries in southern Africa.
Subjects: 
gender
employment
income
multivariate analysis
policies
JEL: 
J16
J21
L26
O12
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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