The Afro-European partnership has changed considerably in recent years, yet tangible improvements in terms of economic and political development, prosperity, health, and education are limited to only a few countries in Africa. The Covid-19 crisis poses now an additional threat to the achievements of the past. The focus section of this CESifo Forum issue examines and discusses the current relations between Africa and Europe, and outlines the main drivers of Africa's economic transformation. Due to the importance of capital flows for development, this section also addresses the use and effectiveness of foreign aid and FDI. The following contributions devote special attention to the future paths of political and economic cooperation between the two continents in a post-corona era.