The paper is dedicated to the problem of flat ontology in philosophy and its relation to the practice in economy. The author argues that flat economy is based on a marginal utility theory of value and presents hierarchical value chains with concentration of power-capital as if they were flat and all the actors involved were equal. This is the work of democratic materialism, with its idea of radical equality of human and non-human interactions. This perspective, according to the author, should be opposed by the reconstruction of power-capital relations in unflat ontologies of the value-creation process.
flat ontology materialism theory of value value chain