The transition to a low carbon energy mix presents particularities regarding the starting point, the relevance of emissions from the energy sector, the objectives and instruments used by the countries. Apart from the Brazilian case, the BRICS have a high share of fossil sources in the energy mix. Analyzing the trends of the transition vectors, BRICS countries are still lagging behind in the diffusion of renewables vis-à-vis the leading countries, but the efficiency gains associated with the expansion of modern sources have been significant in the last 40 years. China has shown a strong commitment to reducing emissions and the scale of renewable energy programs is remarkable. The high share of renewable sources characterizes the Brazilian transition, where the new renewable sources, wind and solar, have the role of compensating for the loss of hydroelectric share. India and South Africa combine the transition goals to those of social inclusion through access to electricity. The abundance of fossil resources entails less engagement of Russia in the transition. Complementarities and similarities in the energy transition process result in opportunities for cooperation between the BRICS and there is much room for a joint energy transition strategy.
energy transition BRICS CO2 emissions renewables efficiency