[Title:] Proceedings of the ENTRENOVA - ENTerprise REsearch InNOVAtion Conference, Rovinj, Croatia, 12-14 September 2019 [ISSN:] 2706-4735 [Volume:] 5 [Pages:] 50-57
Recent macroeconomic and demographic trends have resulted in new challenges for pension systems. One of these challenges is to create a sustainable pension system while simultaneously providing adequate pension benefits for current and future pensioners. This research explores how similar are pension systems of eleven European Union countries by using hierarchical cluster analysis for year 2016. Variables representing pension systems, as well as demographic, macroeconomic and labour market data were used to cluster these economies. Three clustering solutions were generated using hierarchical clustering approach, one for each variable group. Given the number of observed countries, only two cluster solutions were considered. According to the characteristics of the pension systems, countries that have greater problems of unsustainability are recognized. A similar group of countries also forms the cluster characterized by unfavourable demographic trends that make it more difficult to maintain sustainability. Romania stands out from other economies, based on macroeconomic indicators, as it recorded faster economic growth, greater labour productivity growth and lower unemployment rate in 2016. The findings of this study provide a guideline for future pension reforms, since they indicate which countries’ experience could be valuable in defining certain policy measures.
hierarchical cluster analysis the new European Union member states pension system sustainability Ward’s method