Using arguably exogenous variation in college expansions we estimate the effects of college education on female fertility. While college education reduces the probability of becoming a mother, college-educated mothers have more children than mothers without a college education. Lower child-income penalties of college-educated mothers of two relative to mothers without college up to nine years after birth suggest a stronger polarization of college graduate jobs into family-friendly and career-oriented as a potential explanation. We conclude that policies aiming at increasing female educational participation should be counteracted by policies enabling especially college graduates to have both a career and a family.
family planning college education augmented quantity-quality model