This collection of scholarly articles summarizes the main topics from a two-year dialogue and research programme between the Chinese Institute of International Studies (CIIS) and the German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) on the concepts of Building a Harmonious World and Global Governance. The contributions illustrate the extent to which the Chinese understanding of global challenges and domestic responsibilities differs from European discourses, particularly in regard to the meanings of democracy, national sovereignty, human rights and civil society. Normative, philosophical and historical nuances notwithstanding, scholars from both sides have identified extensive common ground on practical policy implications in a framework of multi-level governance. They also agree on the need for broad political regulation at the global level which puts societal objectives at the centre. A key question has emerged from the dialogue: How can China and Europe foster common values and goals as a prerequisite to joint action on pressing problems, such as planetary boundaries, poverty elimination and transformation towards a green world economy? Further research on this could be instrumental in unlocking the substantial potential for fruitful cooperation between the two sides, thereby promoting the emergence of an unprecedented pioneer alliance for sustainability and global public goods.