Jakob, Michael Soria, Rafael Trinidad, Carlos Edenhofer, Ottmar Bak, Céline Bouille, Daniel Buira, Daniel Carlino, Hernan Gutman, Veronica Hübner, Christian Knopf, Brigitte Lucena, André Santos, Luan Scott, Andrew Steckel, Jan Christoph Tanaka, Kanako Vogt-Schilb, Adrien Yamada, Koichi
Year of Publication:
Economics Discussion Papers 2018-86
Green fiscal reforms would contribute to climate change mitigation, increase the economic efficiency of national tax systems and provide additional public revenues. Some countries in Latin America have already taken first steps towards green fiscal reforms. This paper provides an overview of the major challenges for the successful implementation of such reforms and discusses how they could be overcome. The authors first discuss the role of country-specific economic and political enabling conditions that need to be in place for successful implementation for green successful reforms. Second, they emphasize the importance of comprehensive reform plans that include all relevant ministries and agencies and are well-aligned with other policy objectives, such as energy security and industrial development. Third, they highlight how appropriate sequencing and gradualism could lower implementation costs and hence increase the political feasibility of green fiscal reforms. Finally, the authors analyze the potential impacts of green fiscal reforms on the distribution of income and discuss transfer schemes that could avoid adverse outcomes for the poorest parts of the population. They use these four dimensions to illustrate why recent reform efforts in selected Latin American countries have been successful or have failed, respectively.
green fiscal reform energy subsidies Latin America multi-objective climate policy sequencing distribution