Cross-country data are used to establish perceived shortfalls in employee involvement based on the responses of employee representatives in EU establishments with formal workplace employee representation. The desire for greater involvement is smaller where workplace representation is via works councils than union bodies, a finding that also obtains across country clusters. However, the favorable influence of the works council institution, if not information provision, does not carry over to situations in which management is adjudged uncooperative and untrustworthy. Whether the views of these respondents are representative of the workforce and hypothetically of a workforce currently without representation is also considered.
formal workplace employee representation works councils union agencies information/consultation/participation deficits union density country heterogeneity industrial relations quality