This study deals with youth unemployment trends in Europe since the mid of the 80ths in general and regards individual risk factors for Germany and the United Kingdom in particular in the mid of the 90ths. The study for the two selected countries shows that the individual risk of (long-term) unemployment is not equally high for all young people, but rather depends on various socio-economic and structural factors like gender, education, nationality or region of living, for example. The individual level of education is an important determinant of occupational success. Thereby the country specific organisation of educational systems and labour market institutions effects also different occupational outcomes. But also the welfare state structures and policies may determine labour market outcomes. Germany and the United Kingdom responded to the increasing problems of youth unemployment with the active labour market programs 'JUMP' and 'New Deal for Young People' which are discussed.
youth unemployment individual determinants institutional determinants active labour market programs