Bhalotra, Sonia R. Clarke, Damian Gomes, Joseph Venkataramani, Atheendar
Year of Publication:
IZA Discussion Papers 11590
Raising women's political participation leads to faster maternal mortality decline. We estimate that the introduction of quotas for women in parliament results in a 9 to 12% decline in maternal mortality. In terms of mechanisms, it also leads to an 8 to 11% increase in skilled birth attendance and a 6 to 11% increase in prenatal care utilization. We find reinforcing evidence from the period in which the United States experienced rapid declines in maternal mortality. The historical decline made feasible by the introduction of antibiotics was significantly greater in states that had longer exposure to women's suffrage.
maternal mortality women's political representation gender quotas suffrage