Voters whose yes-or-no decision never makes a difference to the outcome in a simple voting game are known as 'null players'. Luxembourg's role in the Council of Ministers during the first period of the European Economic Community (EEC) is often cited as a real-world case. The paper contrasts the textbook claim that Luxembourg was a null player with a more comprehensive picture of Luxembourg's role in EEC's voting system. The assessment of Luxembourg's voting power is sensitive to the role played by the European Commission in the decision-making procedure and the measurement concepts underlying power evaluations.
weighted voting simple games voting power null player dummy player