This study examined socio-economic and behavioral factors affecting Nigerian poultry producers' biosecurity practices in terms of knowledge about bird flu symptoms, beliefs about safe practices, and handling products as well as perception on disease risk transmission. The study is a result of incidence of bird flu in Nigeria, which affected the livelihood of poultry producers. The study used a survey design. The choice of location and population of study (Kano, Lagos, and Anambra states) was based on bird flu disease risk map and population of small-scale poultry farmers in Nigeria. The study used both descriptive and causal analytical tools to achieve the specific objectives of the study. The major findings were that producers with higher knowledge were able to make more informed and rational assessment of true disease spread risks, KAP indices are not important in explaining the actual biosecurity decisions of the Nigerian producers. The study also found that adoption of biosecurity actions depends on flock size (which related to income), educational level of farmers, and incidence of bird flu previously in the area. In addition, smaller and poorer producers adopt fewer biosecurity actions, thus they are considered to be riskier in terms of disease transmission. The study therefore, recommended among other things a well-planned education programs to improve knowledge of bird flu symptoms, nature of disease, how to prevent and control them especially the small-scale poultry producers. This is likely to improve overall good practices of handling poultry and reduce the risk of disease spread of a variety of poultry diseases as well as the health consequences it poses to both animals and humans.