Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/175921
Authors: 
Beyzatlar, Mehmet Aldonat
Karacal, Müge
Yetkiner, I. Hakan
Year of Publication: 
2012
Series/Report no.: 
Working Papers in Economics 12/03
Abstract: 
This study investigates the Granger-causality relationship between real per capita GDP and transportation of EU-15 countries using a panel data set covering the period 1970-2008. Our findings indicate that the dominant type of Granger-causality is bidirectional. Accordingly, we conclude that care must be paid in defining the dependent and independent variables when studying the relationship between transportation and income. Instances of one-way or no Granger-causality were found to correspond with countries with the lowest income per capita ranks in 1970 and/or in 2008, including Portugal, Greece and Italy. We speculate that bi-directional Granger causality between income and transportation is observed only after an economy has completed its transition in terms of economic development.
Subjects: 
Granger-causality
Transportation
Income
JEL: 
C23
O18
Document Type: 
Working Paper
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