This study follows-up on our 2015 study on “Recent Trends in Banking in sub-Saharan Africa - From Financing to Investment”. Against the background of a rapidly evolving context for the SSA banking industry, the Economics Department of the European Investment Bank (EIB) has coordinated this volume, which combines in-house expertise on the region with contributions from leading specialists from the local financial sector and from international financial institutions and research centres. For this third edition of EIB’s study of banking sectors in SSA, the sections devoted to banking sector development in each sub-region have been complemented with a fresh look at digital financing services and the conditions necessary for them to blossom and increase financial inclusion. The study aims to provide an overview of structural development and recent market trends in the region. It outlines some of the key challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. It also presents the results of the second edition of the EIB Survey of Pan-African Banks, a unique survey targeting the largest multi-country players in SSA, as well as containing more detailed structural analysis on long-term housing financing and long-term investment. As such, the report sets the basis for optimising the EIB’s initiatives in SSA.