This paper examines the issue of horizontal inequalities in Viet Nam over the past 20 years. Using data from three recent Viet Nam population censuses (1989, 1999, and 2009) and three Viet Nam Household Living Standard Surveys (1998, 2008, 2012), we estimated numerous measures on inequalities between different 'ethnic' groups against several welfare indicators. Our results show that horizontal inequality matters in Viet Nam, in particular for ethnicity, region, and rural/urban groups. While there has been an improvement in horizontal inequality in education, this paper shows little change in other welfare indicators, in particular poverty. We also found that horizontal inequality does matter for poverty reduction in Viet Nam and it needs more attention when designing poverty policies in the future.
Viet Nam horizontal inequality ethnics regions poverty education