This paper examines the bidirectional causality between innovation and internationalization in the context of developing countries. Using a dynamic bivariate probit model and adopting a broad definition of internationalization, this paper analyzes these issues using a panel dataset of small and medium-sized enterprises in Viet Nam. The results show a high persistence in process and product innovations and internationalization decisions. Furthermore, we find that, for non-micro firms, past internationalization has a positive effect on process innovation, but past process innovation does not have a significant effect on the internationalization decision. For this group of firms, we also find signs of cross-dependence between process innovation and the internationalization decision. Our results, however, do not show dynamic interdependence between internationalization and product innovation.
SME internationalization and innovation process innovation cross-dependence product innovation