Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/161182
Authors: 
Aaronson, Daniel
Dehejia, Rajeev
Jordan, Andrew
Pop-Eleches, Cristian
Samii, Cyrus
Schulze, Karl
Year of Publication: 
2017
Series/Report no.: 
IZA Discussion Papers 10559
Abstract: 
This paper documents the evolving impact of childbearing on the work activity of mothers between 1787 and 2014. It is based on a compiled data set of 429 censuses and surveys, representing 101 countries and 46.9 million mothers, using the International and U.S. IPUMS, the North Atlantic Population Project, and the Demographic and Health Surveys. Using twin births (Rosenzweig and Wolpin 1980) and same gendered children (Angrist and Evans 1998) as instrumental variables, we show three main findings: (1) the effect of fertility on labor supply is small and often indistinguishable from zero at low levels of income and large and negative at higher levels of income; (2) these effects are remarkably consistent both across time looking at the historical time series of currently developed countries and at a contemporary cross section of developing countries; and (3) the results are robust to other instrument variation, different demographic and educational groups, rescaling to account for changes in the base level of labor force participation, and a variety of specification and data decisions. We show that the negative gradient in female labor supply is consistent with a standard labor-leisure model augmented to include a taste for children. In particular, our results appear to be driven by a declining substitution effect to increasing wages that arises from changes in the sectoral and occupational structure of female jobs into formal non-agricultural wage employment as countries develop.
Subjects: 
labor supply
fertilty
mothers
JEL: 
F63
F66
J00
J13
N00
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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