This paper analyzes the influence of wind turbines as new participants on prices and allocation within balancing markets. We introduce the cost-minimizing electricity sector model ELMOD-MIP, that includes detailed unit-commitment constraints, complex combined heat and power constraints, and minimum bid sizes for balancing capacity reservation. The model also features a novel approach of modeling balancing reservation by considering possible activation costs already during the reservation phase, mimicking the activation anticipation of market participants. The model includes the spot and balancing market of Germany and is applied to scenarios for 2013 and 2025. The results for 2025 show, in comparison to 2013, a price increase for positive and negative reserves, in case no new participants enter the market. With the participation of wind turbines the cost for balancing provision is reduced by 40%, but above 2013 values. The relative cost savings from wind participation are higher for negative reserve provision than positive reserve provision, as wind turbines can use their full capacity if not activated and do not have to be curtailed ex ante. The participation of wind turbines especially reduces the occurrence of peak prices for positive and negative reserves in 2025. This reduction effect occurs even with a relatively low share where wind turbines participate with only five percent of their capacity. Therefore, further fostering the process of allowing wind turbines to participate in the German reserve market seems favorable.
balancing reserves electricity sector modeling power plant dispatch wind participation