In this paper we analyze the determinants of export sophistication based on a large panel dataset (2001-2014; 101 countries) and using different estimation algorithms. Using Monte Carlo simulations we evaluate the bias properties of estimators and show that GMM-type estimators outperform instrumental-variable and fixed-effects estimators. We show that when we apply the panel data over a different period and different set of countries, the findings of Hausmann et al. (2007) remain robust. We provide new evidence of export sophistication path-dependency and confirm that GDP per capita and the size of the economy exert significant and positive effects on export sophistication. Institutional quality positively affects only countries with low institutional quality. The high persistence of export sophistication is also a sign that export diversification promotes not only productivity and sustainable economic growth but also resistance during economic downturns.
international trade export sophistication specialization dynamic panel data Monte Carlo simulation panel data estimators