Carayannis, Elias G. Campbell, David F. J. Rehman, Scheherazade S.
Year of Publication:
[Journal:] Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship [ISSN:] 2192-5372 [Volume:] 5 [Year:] 2016 [Issue:] 17 [Pages:] 1-24
With the comprehensive term of "Mode 3," we want to draw a conceptual link between systems and systems theory and want to demonstrate further how this can be applied to knowledge in the next steps. Systems can be understood as being composed of "elements", which are tied together by a "self-rationale". For innovation, often innovation clusters and innovation networks are being regarded as important. By leveraging systems theory for innovation concepts, one can implement references between the elements of a system and clusters (innovation clusters) and the selfrationale of a system and that of networks (innovation networks). One advantage of this approach is that it makes the tools of systems theory effectively available for research on innovation. Based on original research about the European Union, also the concept of a multi-level hierarchy promises conceptual opportunities. Further integrating systems theory, we can speak of multi-level systems of knowledge (following different levels of aggregation) and multi-level systems of innovation (also following different levels of aggregation). The popular and powerful concept of the national innovation system is being chronically challenged by continuous and ongoing processes of supranational and global integration. Conceptually unlocking the national innovation systems in favor of a broader multi-level logic implies furthermore to accept the existence of national innovation systems but, at the same time, also to emphasize their global embeddedness. Our suggested catch-phrase of "Mode 3", therefore, integrates several considerations that want to relate systems theory, knowledge, and innovation more directly to each other, and this should be understood as a contribution to a dynamically evolving general discourse on the topics of knowledge and innovation.
Clusters Mode 3 Mode 3 knowledge production systems Multi-level systems Networks Quadruple and quintuple helix innovation systems Systems Systems theory