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Carayannis, Elias G.
Campbell, David F. J.
Year of Publication: 
[Journal:] Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship [ISSN:] 2192-5372 [Volume:] 3 [Year:] 2014 [Pages:] 1-23
Arts, democracy, and innovation co-evolve. While for the Triple Helix model the existence of a democracy is not necessary for knowledge production and innovation, the Quadruple Helix is here more explicit. The way how the Quadruple Helix is being engineered, designed, and "architected" clearly shows that there cannot be a Quadruple Helix innovation system without democracy or a democratic context. The following attributes and components define the fourth helix in the Quadruple Helix: "media-based and culture-based public,; "civil society," and "arts, artistic research, and arts-based innovation". By this, the fourth helix in the Quadruple Helix represents the perspective of the "dimension of democracy" or the "context of democracy" for knowledge, knowledge production, and innovation. This is particularly true when democracy is to be understood to transcend the narrow understanding of being primarily based on or being primarily rooted in government institutions (within Triple Helix). Civil society, culture-based public, quality of democracy, and sustainable development convincingly demonstrate what the rationales and requirements are for conceptualizing democracy broader. Political pluralism in a democracy co-evolves with the pluralism, diversity, and heterogeneity of knowledge, knowledge production, and innovation ("Democracy of Knowledge"). The Quintuple Helix extends the Quadruple Helix by aspects of the "natural environments of society and economy," "social ecology," and the "socio-ecological transition". Also, this environmental context of society can be better addressed in a democracy than in a non-democracy. The current world appears to be challenged by a race between developing democracies versus emerging autocracies over knowledge production and innovation. The contributions of arts, arts-based research, and arts-based innovation to knowledge production and innovation systems are manifold. Art helps and aids us in thinking "beyond the box". The traditional understanding of arts emphasizes the aesthetic dimension of arts. Art and arts can also be understood (and re-invented) as a manifestation of knowledge, knowledge production, and knowledge creation. Arts and artistic research are now being regarded as drivers for forming and pluralizing interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary configurations and networks with research in the sciences and the application and use of knowledge and innovation in the context of not only society and democracy, but also the economy. Art, arts-based research, and arts-based innovation contribute to creating (co-creating) the basis for new models of economic growth. This indicates opportunities for a creative design or creative design processes in the further co-evolution of knowledge economy, knowledge society, and knowledge democracy.
AAA (arts, artistic research, and arts-based innovation)
Cross-employment and multi-employment
Democracy of knowledge
Socio-ecological transition
Multi-level innovation systems
Innovation ecosystem
Twenty-first century Fractal Research and Education and Innovation Ecosystem (FREIE)
Networks and network governance
Linear and non-linear innovation
Quadruple Helix innovation systems
Quadruple Helix Plus
Quintuple Helix
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