Among all G20 countries, Germany has the lowest level of inequality in terms of disposable income. Germany's tax and transfer system - which has a strong and effective redistributive impact compared with other countries - plays a key role in this connection. Over the past ten years, positive growth and employment trends have signifi cantly improved opportunities for economic participation and have put a stop to previous trends towards greater income inequality. In order to safeguard efficient growth and redistributive policies in the future, it is essential for Germany to maintain sufficient incentives for investment, innovation and employment. Political reform strategies to ensure equality of opportunity should aim to achieve a more broad-based accumulation of private wealth and to strengthen labour force participation. The promotion of lifelong education and training, and the economic and social application of the knowledge created in this process, will play a decisive role in achieving these objectives.