The main aim of the paper is to present the legal and institutional framework related to participation of citizens residing abroad in national elections (so called external voting) implemented in various countries. In particular, the legal framework existing in Poland is a subject of detailed analyses, including the changes over the last century. A review of present legal and organizational solutions connected to external voting is presented in the text, as well as national models based on cases of selected states. The possible procedures of registration and voting from abroad and their development in time (reflecting the transformation of external voting towards better accessibility and universality) are also discussed in the paper. The subject of analysis are existing dilemmas related to implementation of voting from abroad in practice, including passive voting rights (the seats in parliament dedicated to diaspora representatives).
electoral participation external voting diaspora Polonia and Poles abroad