At the close of the Second Development Decade, 1971–1980, the Third World was able to record significant achievements in industrialization and external trade. But the army of jobless has swollen further; the urban slums have grown larger; and famine has claimed more, not fewer victims. The current development trends make it imperative to keep the masses on the land and to prevent a grave situation growing even worse. Jobs have to be created in the countryside; those who till the land must ensure supplies for themselves and the population at large. This article shows how these objectives can be approached.