This brief essay discusses the balance sheet evolution of the banking system in Brazil in the recent period, between March 2007 and March 2014, as well as analyses methodological aspects of balance sheet data of the banks in Brazil. The study shows substantial changes in the banking system balance sheet, both in assets as liabilities. The analysis of selected data and indicators shows that the banking system in Brazil, as a whole, changed to a balance sheet position with liquidity level minor exactly in a context of high uncertainty. It was possible because of the anti cyclical and the accelerator behavior of credit by public banks; especially Caixa Econômica Federal and Banco do Brasil. While the growth of banking credit was commanded by private banks between 2003 and 2008, after the global financial crisis of 2008 the public banks led this process, with a modest participation of private banks.