This paper investigates the impact of international outsourcing on total employment using two-digit manufacturing data for seven EU countries for the period of 1995-2000. As is common in other empirical work, international outsourcing is measured as imports in intermediate imports. Estimates using OLS first differences show that imported materials from the same industry originating from low-wage countries have a significant and negative impact on total employment. The estimates suggest that rising intermediate imports from low-wage countries may account for an approximate reduction of 0.25 percentage points in employment per year. Sample split regressions show that the impact of imported materials from low-wage countries is statistically significant in industries with low skill intensity but not in skill intensive industries such as machinery, electrical, optical and transport equipment.
Trade in intermediate imports labour demand cross-country analysis