Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Kettner, Claudia
Köppl, Angela
Stagl, Sigrid
Year of Publication: 
Series/Report no.: 
WWWforEurope Working Paper 52
Questioning GDP as dominant indicator for economic performance has become commonplace. For economists economic policy always aims for a broader array of goals (like income, employment, price stability, trade balance) alongside income, with income being the priority objective. The Stiglitz-Sen- Fitoussi Commission argued for extending and adapting key variables of macroeconomic analysis. International organisations such as the EC, OECD, Eurostat and UN have proposed extended arrays of macroeconomic indicators (see ‘Beyond GDP’, ‘Compendium of wellbeing indicators’, ‘GDP and Beyond’, 'Green Economy', 'Green Growth', 'Measuring Progress of Societies'). Despite these high profile efforts, few wellbeing and environmental variables are in use in macroeconomic models. The reasons for the low uptake of socio-ecological indicators in macroeconomic models range from path dependencies in modelling, technical limitations, indicator lists being long and unworkable, choices of indicators appearing ad hoc and poor data availability. In this paper we review key approaches and identify a limited list of candidate variables and – as much as possible – offer data sources.
Academic research
Beyond GDP
Biophysical constraints
Ecological integrity
Economic growth path
Socio-ecological transition
Document Type: 
Working Paper
Appears in Collections:

Files in This Item:

Items in EconStor are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.