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Municipal reform in Ukraine as a tool to resolve internal contradictions
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54th Congress of the European Regional Science Association: "Regional development & globalisation: Best practices", 26-29 August 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia
Sharp conflict between the government and the opposition, as well as between different regions of Ukraine in the recent past has led to tragic consequences. The resolution of existing in Ukraine, and the underlying conflict, regional differences, according to the authors, is possible if the country stays unified. The reform of state and municipal government, based on the principles of decentralization and deconcentration of power and fiscal powers can be the key to resolving contradictions. The modern theory of state and municipal government usually considers local government through the prism of concepts such as decentralization and deconcentration of state power. Deconcentration and decentralization have a number of common features, being 'two different types of movement authority to the local level' . At the same time, there are a lot of important differences between them. 'Deconcentration - said J. Wedel - this is only management technique, which by itself is not equivalent to the development of democracy, because it keeps the entire administration at the disposal of the central government or its representatives'.Deconcentration reforms have 'management, not a political sense: geographically the managerial apparatus is close to the citizens, but there are no powers conferred on themâ?. During decentralization the authorities from the government as an entity legal go to â??another entity legal which is the local management team - a municipality or department, or government agency', while at the same time, decentralization of power does not mean turning to federalism. As noted by J. Wedel, if decentralization 'leads to public entities - other than the State - these public entities are purely administrative and do not have a legislative or judicial power'. Simultaneously, the project concept contain a reverse approach, according to which at the level of regions and districts the state executive authorities is saved and appointed by and accountable to the President of Ukraine. Implementing the governmental local policy, these bodies are part of deconcentration of authority. The concept of reform presents a position, according to which the state administration will have the right to cancel the decisions of local authorities, and only then apply to the courts to establish the illicit nature of canceled orders. This practice, according to the experts, is a mechanism for the actual subordination of local government to the territorial public administrations. Thus, the concept of reform simultaneously contains multidirectional movement - to strong municipalities and municipalities, built in the vertical state. This uncertainty is the most significant risk because a potential increase of conflicts of such a system will lead to its malfunction.
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