Since the 1990s, many African countries have invested in efforts to develop national frameworks to address crosscutting environmental management issues and problems. But how and to what extent have these national frameworks been implemented at the local level? And what has been the contribution of development cooperation in this respect? This report seeks to improve our insight into such issues through a detailed case study of the implementation of Kenya's Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) in Taita Taveta County in Southern Kenya. The study is primarily focused on the operations of one institution, namely the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), which is a key authority in implementing the EMCA. The study focuses on the everyday aspects of implementing the EMCA on the ground in the past seven years, including the situation of the local Environment Officer, his/her relations to other actors in the area, and the implications of institutional competition and power relations. The main emphasis is on issues related to institutional development, enforcement, environmental planning and mainstreaming, and implications for public engagement.