Working Paper, School of Economics and Finance, Queen Mary, University of London 745
Classical definitions of complementarity are based on cross price elasticities, and so they do not apply, for example, when goods are free. This context includes many relevant cases such as online newspapers and public attractions. We look for a complementarity notion that does not rely on price variation and that is: behavioural (based only on observable choice data); and model-free (valid whether the agent is rational or not). We uncover a conflict between properties that complementarity should intuitively possess. We discuss three ways out of the impossibility.
Complements and substitutes Correlation Stochastic choice