The article focuses on the recovery of industrial policy in China, India and Brazil from late twentieth century on. First, it indicates the challenges of industrial policy for the semi-peripheral countries in the contemporary world. Then, it discusses the paths of catching up in the countries analyzed, occurred mainly in the middle of the past century, and market reforms that intended to rectify these paths. Further, it describes the most comprehensive programs of industrial policy of each country, analyzing the dilemmas posed for the coordination of its implementation, a key element to define the State's capability to implement such policies. Finally, it examines the challenges of the current industrial policy of Brazil.
development contemporary industrial policy Brasil China India comparative historical analysis