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52nd Congress of the European Regional Science Association: "Regions in Motion - Breaking the Path", 21-25 August 2012, Bratislava, Slovakia
In France, the Paris region is the traditional centre for decision-making and creative functions. Unsurprisingly, it respectively concentrates 75% and 90% of audiovisual producers and technicians, and 52% of video games employees (IAURIF, 2010). The aim of this paper is to analyse if the Parisian media sector has developed a clustering dynamics. Following the rediscovery of Alfred Marshall's academic publications during the eighties, a widening number of research papers - mainly draft in Europe and United-States - concentrates on explaining the ins and outs of the spatial and relational proximities. The unsettled notion of cluster popularized from 1990 by Michael Porter had a coronation within the academic community, instead of the substantial conceptual limits underline by various schools of thought. Consequently, the concept of innovation cluster blows in the communications of the spatial economists achieving scientific works on high-tech sector. Unlike the classical approach, innovative clusters assert at least three new features: - The regional scale (Enright, Dodwell et Scott, 1996), - The collaborative process of governance (Ehlinger, Perret and Chabaud, 2007 ; Den Hertog and Roelandt, 1999) which gathers the Triple Helix actors Etzkowitz and Leydersdorff, 1997): firms, training and R&D facilities, and public authorities. - The non-immediately-marketable aspect of the relationships undertook within the cluster (Glon, 2007). The Paris region concentrates 10.000 multimedia firms, including a great number of SME which sometimes have established networks with some multinational media groups. However, the relations are extremely limited with the regional schools and research laboratories. The economic situation of SME remains very fragile. That's explain the launching in 2005 by the Ile de France Regional Council of a cross-media professional association, Cap Digital, labellized competitiveness cluster. On the regional scale, this association gathers 450 firms, 50 schools or universities and 170 research laboratories in audiovisual, video games, software, Internet and telecommunications industries. In spite of a rapid growth of the sector and 150 projects labellized on the regional scale, collaborations within the cluster still remain very recent, rarely include a cross-media approach and hesitate to develop partnerships with research units. According to J-C Daumas (2007), clusters are characterized by several phases: emergence, growth, decline and rebirth. We can consider that the Parisian multimedia cluster as a growth and structuring cluster.
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