50th Congress of the European Regional Science Association: "Sustainable Regional Growth and Development in the Creative Knowledge Economy", 19-23 August 2010, Jönköping, Sweden
In the seventies the policies of regional economic development in the OECD and in Europe were joined by the correction of economic (growth rates of GDP and income unbalanced) and technical differences and by inadequate allocations of human, financial, and infrastructural resources. Regional policies were based on the following points: a)Massive financial assistance (to develop infrastructures and public services) to the poorest regions; b)Creating artificial poles of economic development at regional level; c)Creation ex-nihilo of technology; d)Attempts to keep alive in declining industries to protect local employment. After twenty years of operations the results have been disastrous, and many countries in the OECD and EU have been questioned, on the usefulness of continuing to adopt them and today has become oriented towards a new paradigm, even in light of the phenomenon of globalization,. that rests on five pillars> 1)Regional policies directed to all regions from poorer to richer. 2) Measures to mobilize all means to put in a position to maximize the opportunities for development of all regions, through the formation of territorial capital, that allows to develop a multiplier of the investment. 3) The central government must ensure the maintenance of the quality of infrastructure, of public services and an environment conducive to the development of enterprises. 4) Actions on the level of infrastructure of intangible nature. These must be related to the dissemination of knowledge (education, training) of technology and innovation, measures aimed at the development of social capital; and all measures aimed at protecting of environment. 5)A regional policy developed nationally that must be consistent with the policies put in place, in regions and cities, with the processes of decentralization of responsibility accompanied by fiscal resources for their implementation. The objective of this research is to analyse some aspects of these new pillars aimed at overcoming regional economic, technical and infrastructural disparities and to ensure sustainable development promoting new methods and practices of strategic techniques in innovations oriented in cohesion and in regional competitiveness, through a process of integration of economic, social, cultural and environmental activity.