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45th Congress of the European Regional Science Association: "Land Use and Water Management in a Sustainable Network Society", 23-27 August 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Mobility reduction and modal shift towards public transport, walking and cycling were important aims of the Dutch spatial policy from the nineties (VINEX). This policy encompassed several criteria for new housing developments, to limit the mobility these generate. This paper reports on a study into the mobility consequences of the developments that were the result of this VINEX policy. It discusses the compliance of these locations with policy criteria and analyses the (car) travel behaviour of their inhabitants. The study focusses on the spatial situation of all newly built housing from the period 1995-2003 and the travel behaviour of their occupants. Part of these are classified as VINEX developments or dwellings, others are not developed as part of the VINEX policy and are referred to as non-VINEX. Results were obtained from detailled analyses of spatial characteristics and regression analyses of individual travel patterns. Differences between sections of the population and their specific characteristics are controlled for. The results show that the situation on the VINEX developments is largely in accordance with policy intentions, both with regard to proximity and accessibility. Many houses have been built within the existing urban area and the location of green field developments in relation to urban centres is favourable. Public transport facilities are on average better for VINEX dwellings, than elsewhere. Policy implementation was less succesful with regard to mixing land uses and the distances to daily amenities. The mobility generated proves to vary strongly between different types of locations. New developments, in general, generate more motorised mobility than average. Locations that were developed as part of the VINEX policy do better than non-VINEX. Especially the innercity VINEX-developments is characterised by low car use, despite the fact that they are inhabited by a relatively mobile section of the population. However, the results also show that innercity developments are most useful when located in the older parts of cities. Car use was high on Vinex-greenfield locations, but that is mainly caused by the composition of the population. The spatial criteria for VINEX developments, proximity and accessibility, have in fact played an important role in the more favourable mobility pattern. Particularly the location near urban centres and the accessibility by public transport have contributed to the lower car use in VINEX developments in comparison to non-VINEX.
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