This paper uses micro-data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys 2002-2006 to investigate how foreign ownership affects the likelihood of manufacturers in developing countries to export and/or import. Applying propensity score matching to control for differences across firms in terms of labor productivity and other characteristics, we find that foreign ownership is an economically important and statistically significant determinant of the likelihood that a firm will export and/or import. Foreign ownership raises the propensity to export by over 17 and the propensity to import by more than 13 percentage points. The effects are even bigger for the lowest-income countries.
international trade multinational enterprise foreign direct investment foreign ownership development intermediation