Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/108679
Authors: 
Frederiksen, Anders
Halliday, Timothy J.
Year of Publication: 
2015
Series/Report no.: 
IZA Discussion Papers 8797
Abstract: 
"Glass ceilings" and "sticky floors" are typical explanations for the low representation of women in top executive positions, but a focus on gender differences in promotions provides only a partial explanation. We consider the life-cycle of executive employment, which allows for a full characterization of the gender composition of executive management. We establish that there are few women in executive management because they have lower levels of human capital, are underrepresented in lower-level jobs, and are less likely to be perceived as high-productivity employees. We do not find that women have uniformly unfavorable promotion and demotion probabilities.
Subjects: 
discrimination
dynamics
gender
JEL: 
J71
J62
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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