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dc.contributor.authorLehmann, Jee-Yeon K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorNuevo-Chiquero, Anaen_US
dc.contributor.authorVidal-Fernández, Marianen_US
dc.description.abstractThe critical role of prenatal and early childhood conditions on adult outcomes has been the focus of a rich body of research. In this paper, we examine various pre- and postnatal investments as possible sources behind the birth order effect - significant differences in the educational and labor market outcomes across children of varying birth orders. Taking advantage of a rich set of information on in utero and early childhood conditions in the Children of the NLSY79, we find that, within the same household, siblings of higher birth order experience a lower reduction in cigarette usage during pregnancy, are breastfed less often, and experience less cognitive stimulation and emotional support at ages 0 to 1. Next, we test for the presence of birth order effects in early cognitive and non-cognitive test scores and examine whether these differences can be explained by variations in prenatal and early childhood investments. Although there exists a significant negative relationship between birth order and early cognitive/non-cognitive test scores, the size and the significance of the negative birth order effects in test scores and educational attainment are robust to controlling for variations in early childhood factors.en_US
dc.publisherInstitute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonnen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesDiscussion Paper series, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit 6755en_US
dc.subject.keywordbirth orderen_US
dc.subject.keywordearly test scoresen_US
dc.subject.keywordparental investmenten_US
dc.subject.keywordprenatal investmenten_US
dc.subject.keywordpostnatal investmenten_US
dc.subject.keywordearly childhood investmenten_US
dc.subject.keywordfetal origins hypothesisen_US
dc.subject.keywordcognitive outcomesen_US
dc.subject.keywordnon-cognitive outcomesen_US
dc.subject.stwFrühkindliche Bildungen_US
dc.titleExplaining the birth order effect: The role of prenatal and early childhood investmentsen_US
dc.typeWorking Paperen_US
Appears in Collections:IZA Discussion Papers, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA)

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