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Title:Formal contracts, relational contracts, and the threat-point effect PDF Logo
Authors:Itoh, Hideshi
Morita, Hodaka
Issue Date:2011
Series/Report no.:CESifo working paper: Industrial Organisation 3533
Abstract:Can formal contracts help resolving the holdup problem? We address this important question by studying the holdup problem in repeated transactions between a seller and a buyer in which the seller can make relation-specific investments in each period. In contrast to previous findings, we demonstrate that writing a simple fixed-price contract based on product delivery is of value even when relation-specific investment is purely cooperative. In particular, there is a range of parameter values in which a higher investment can be implemented only if a formal fixed-price contract is written and combined with an informal agreement on additional payments or termination of future trade, contingent upon investments. Furthermore, we show that under an additional natural assumption, focusing our attention on fixed-price contracts as a form of formal contracts is without loss of generality. The key driving force of our result is a possibility that the threat-point effect is negative, i.e., the relation-specific investment decreases the surplus under no trade. This possibility, although very plausible, has been largely ignored in previous theoretical/empirical analyses of the holdup problem.
Subjects:holdup problem
formal contract
relational contract
cooperative investment
fixed-price contract
relation-specific investment
repeated transactions
long-term relationships
JEL:D23
D86
L14
L22
L24
Document Type:Working Paper
Appears in Collections:CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Group Munich

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