EconStor >
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen (JLU) >
Zentrum für Internationale Entwicklungs- und Umweltforschung (ZEU), Universität Gießen >
Discussion Papers, ZEU, JLU Gießen >

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

http://hdl.handle.net/10419/39805
  

Full metadata record

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorKramb, Marcen_US
dc.contributor.authorHerrmann, Rolanden_US
dc.date.accessioned2009-12-04en_US
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-09T09:50:31Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-09T09:50:31Z-
dc.date.issued2009en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/39805-
dc.description.abstractFor decades, nontariff trade barriers (NTBs) have been regarded as more problematic policy instruments than tariffs in international trade negotiations. This is due to the fact that trade impacts of nontariff trade barriers are less transparent than those of tariffs. Tariffication of nontariff agricultural trade barriers was finally decided under the Uruguay Round of GATT. Although the OECD concluded that a reduction of NTBs took place after 1994, this finding can be challenged. First, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) are not counted as NTBs by law although they cause effects similar to those of quotas. The number of TRQs has increased strongly after the Uruguay Round. Second, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, i.e. SPS measures, have become more important as notifications under the SPS Agreement do show. There are only few empirical studies available which analyze the effects of these SPS measures. WTO Notifications under the SPS Agreement are utilized in this contribution for measuring trade impacts of sanitary and phytosanitary trade barriers. We explain the WTO data base on SPS notifications. Then, a gravitation model is applied to the EU beef trade in the period January 1995 to June 2001. It is investigated how SPS measures, introduced by non-EU countries in the context of BSE, affected bilateral trade with the EU. We distinguish between 31 product groups which might be affected, and a fixed-effects model is used for analyzing the panel data. We elaborate that SPS measures related to BSE reduced EU beef export revenues in the major product categories significantly. The NTBs did not reduce exports to zero, however, as might have been expected. The percentage reduction of export revenues was 49 % for live cattle, 74 % for fresh and cooled beef and 86 % for frozen beef. For most other product groups, the percentage decline in sales was significant but lower in percentage terms. Apparently, SPS notifications indicate that bilateral trade is restricted but it does not definitely show that the notified measures by the importing country are actually implemented and for which time period. It seems very important in future analyses of the SPS measures to distinguish carefully between SPS notifications and SPS measures.en_US
dc.language.isogeren_US
dc.publisherZEU Giessenen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesDiskussionsbeiträge // Zentrum für internationale Entwicklungs- und Umweltforschung 43en_US
dc.subject.ddc330en_US
dc.subject.keywordSPS measuresen_US
dc.subject.keywordSPS notificationsen_US
dc.subject.keywordgravitation modelen_US
dc.subject.keywordEU beef exportsen_US
dc.subject.keywordbovine spongiform encephalopathyen_US
dc.subject.keywordWTOen_US
dc.subject.keywordnontariff trade barriersen_US
dc.subject.stwRindfleischen_US
dc.subject.stwExportbeschränkungen_US
dc.subject.stwTierkrankheiten_US
dc.subject.stwWTO-Regelnen_US
dc.subject.stwNichttarifäre Handelshemmnisseen_US
dc.subject.stwGravitationsmodellen_US
dc.subject.stwEU-Staatenen_US
dc.subject.stwWelten_US
dc.titleWie wirken gemeldete SPS-Maßnahmen? Ein Gravitationsmodell des Rindfleischhandels der EUen_US
dc.typeWorking Paperen_US
dc.identifier.ppn614329760en_US
dc.rightshttp://www.econstor.eu/dspace/Nutzungsbedingungen-
dc.identifier.repecRePEc:zbw:zeudps:43-
Appears in Collections:Discussion Papers, ZEU, JLU Gießen

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat
614329760.pdf277.64 kBAdobe PDF
No. of Downloads: Counter Stats
Show simple item record
Download bibliographical data as: BibTeX

Items in EconStor are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.