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dc.contributor.authorUrbig, Diemoen_US
dc.contributor.authorMonsen, Eriken_US
dc.date.accessioned2009-03-06en_US
dc.date.accessioned2010-05-14T11:12:02Z-
dc.date.available2010-05-14T11:12:02Z-
dc.date.issued2009en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/31708-
dc.description.abstractWhy are some people more optimistic about their life than others? Literature on locus of control suggests that optimism is associated with the belief that one’s life outcomes are controlled by internal factors, such as ability, instead of external factors, such as powerful others or chance. Furthermore, some authors suggest that internal control beliefs interact with self-efficacy beliefs regarding their effects on outcome expectancies and thus optimism. We argue that it is not only self-efficacy that interacts, but efficacy beliefs about external factors, too. We further hypothesize that the effect of perceiving internal rather than external control on dispositional optimism depends on the difference between efficacy beliefs regarding internal and external factors. Since people can influence other people to be helpful, i.e., take proxy control, but are unlikely to influence chance, we extend this internal-versus-external view and suggest that the difference between perceived control by others and perceived control by chance affect dispositional optimism. In fact, we hypothesize that the effect of perceiving that it is other people who are in control, rather than chance, depends on the difference between efficacy beliefs regarding others and chance. A first empirical survey-based test produces substantial support for our theory. This is the first time control-efficacy interaction effects are shown for dispositional variables and for the three-dimensional construct of locus of control. We replicate a gender effect on correlations of dispositional optimism with self-reported risk taking and observe a gender effect for one of our new hypotheses.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherUniversität Jena und Max-Planck-Institut für Ökonomik Jenaen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJena economic research papers 2009,013en_US
dc.subject.jelD8en_US
dc.subject.jelD83en_US
dc.subject.jelD84en_US
dc.subject.ddc330en_US
dc.subject.keywordInformationen_US
dc.subject.keywordknowledgeen_US
dc.subject.keyworduncertaintyen_US
dc.subject.keywordsearchen_US
dc.subject.keywordlearningen_US
dc.subject.keywordinformation and knowledgeen_US
dc.subject.keywordcommunicationen_US
dc.subject.keywordbeliefen_US
dc.subject.keywordexpectationsen_US
dc.subject.keywordspeculationsen_US
dc.subject.stwMeinungen_US
dc.subject.stwLebensverlaufen_US
dc.subject.stwErwartungstheorieen_US
dc.subject.stwLernprozessen_US
dc.subject.stwPersönlichkeitspsychologieen_US
dc.subject.stwSchätzungen_US
dc.subject.stwDeutschlanden_US
dc.titleOptimistic, but not in control: life-orientation and the theory of mixed controlen_US
dc.typeWorking Paperen_US
dc.identifier.ppn593207068en_US
dc.rightshttp://www.econstor.eu/dspace/Nutzungsbedingungen-
Appears in Collections:Jena Economic Research Papers, MPI für Ökonomik

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