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dc.contributor.authorCaporale, Guglielmo Mariaen_US
dc.contributor.authorGeorgellis, Yannisen_US
dc.contributor.authorTsitsianis, Nicholasen_US
dc.contributor.authorPing, Yaen_US
dc.date.accessioned2008-02-06en_US
dc.date.accessioned2009-07-28T08:28:51Z-
dc.date.available2009-07-28T08:28:51Z-
dc.date.issued2007en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/26190-
dc.description.abstractUsing data from the European Social Survey (ESS), we examine the link between income and subjective well-being. We find that, for the whole sample of nineteen European countries, although income is positively correlated with both happiness and life satisfaction, reference income exerts a negative effect on individual well-being, a result consistent with the relative utility hypothesis. Performing separate analyses for some Eastern European countries, we also find some evidence of a ‘tunnel effect’, in that reference income has a positive impact on subjective well-being. Our findings support the view that in environments with stable income and employment, reference income serves as a basis for social comparisons, whereas in relatively volatile environments, it is used as a source of information for forming expectations about future status.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherCESifo Münchenen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesCESifo working paper 2146en_US
dc.subject.jelI31en_US
dc.subject.ddc330en_US
dc.subject.keywordcomparison incomeen_US
dc.subject.keywordreference groupsen_US
dc.subject.keywordhappinessen_US
dc.subject.keywordlife satisfactionen_US
dc.subject.stwEinkommensverteilungen_US
dc.subject.stwLebensqualitäten_US
dc.subject.stwLebenszufriedenheiten_US
dc.subject.stwStatistisches Auswahlverfahrenen_US
dc.subject.stwSchätzungen_US
dc.subject.stwEuropaen_US
dc.titleIncome and happiness across Europe: do reference values matter?en_US
dc.typeWorking Paperen_US
dc.identifier.ppn557919061en_US
dc.rightshttp://www.econstor.eu/dspace/Nutzungsbedingungen-
Appears in Collections:CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Group Munich

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