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dc.contributor.authorPettersson-Lidbom, Peren_US
dc.contributor.authorPriks, Mikaelen_US
dc.date.accessioned2007-07-24en_US
dc.date.accessioned2009-07-28T08:14:46Z-
dc.date.available2009-07-28T08:14:46Z-
dc.date.issued2007en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/26005-
dc.description.abstractThis paper studies how social pressure affects the behavior of soccer referees. We make use of an attractive source of exogenous variation in the number of spectators at matches. Due to recent hooligan violence, the Italian government has implemented a regulation that forces some soccer teams to temporarily play home matches in empty stadiums. We find that referees punish away players more harshly and home players more lightly when the games are played in front of spectators compared to when they are not. This indicates that referees exhibit home bias caused by social pressure from the spectators.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherCESifo Münchenen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesCESifo working paper 1960en_US
dc.subject.jelJ00en_US
dc.subject.ddc330en_US
dc.subject.stwSchiedsgerichtsbarkeiten_US
dc.subject.stwSoziale Beziehungenen_US
dc.subject.stwFußballsporten_US
dc.subject.stwVerhaltenen_US
dc.subject.stwItalienen_US
dc.titleBehavior under social pressure: empty Italian stadiums and referee biasen_US
dc.typeWorking Paperen_US
dc.identifier.ppn538093552en_US
dc.rightshttp://www.econstor.eu/dspace/Nutzungsbedingungen-
Appears in Collections:CESifo Working Papers, CESifo Group Munich

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